Research Bibliography

Bibliography of research publications related to Hybrid-Flexible course designs (by any name, not just HyFlex). Hybrid-Flexible course designs provide instruction in a classroom and in at least one online mode (synchronous or asynchronous) and allow students to choose their mode of participation for each class session.

This bibliography is representative, not exhaustive. Suggest an addition: [form opens in new tab]


Bărbuceanu, C. D. (2022). HyFlex- Rethinking Courses in On-line Teaching. Revista de Stiinte Politice, 73, 241–247.
Keywords: HyFlex, language learning, COVID-19 pandemic

Buatois, E. M., Akunna, A. A., Bailey, T., Coomer, T. N., Putnam, W. C., Hall, R. G., 2nd, Pass, S. E., & MacLaughlin, E. J. (2022). Using the HyFlex model to deliver a capstone seminar course. Currents in pharmacy teaching & learning14(9), 1109–1115.
Keywords: Capstone; Engagement; Grand rounds; HyFlex; Hybrid

Çetinkaya, A., & Kırık, A. M. (2022). Distance Education in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Opportunities and Threats. In Handbook of Research on Digital Citizenship and Management During Crises (pp. 17-33). IGI Global.
Keywords: pandemic, distance learning, hyflex learning

Chen, L. (2022). Designing Online Discussion for HyFlex Learning. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 8(1), 191–198.
Keywords: Digital learning tools, HyFlex learning, interface design, online discussion.

Davie. (2022). Evaluation of the HyFlex, Hybrid, and Asynchronous Online Teaching Modalities on Student Learning in Graduate Microbiology Coursework. The FASEB Journal, 36(S1).
Keywords: student learning outcomes, STEM education

Detyna, Sanchez-Pizani, R., Giampietro, V., Dommett, E. J., & Dyer, K. (2022). Hybrid flexible (HyFlex) teaching and learning: climbing the mountain of implementation challenges for synchronous online and face-to-face seminars during a pandemic. Learning Environments Research, 1–15.
Keywords: Dual mode, innovation, learning space, HyFlex teaching, classroom technology, implementation, pandemic

Eyal, L., & Gil, E. (2022). Hybrid Learning Spaces — A Three-Fold Evolving Perspective. In: Gil E., Mor Y., Dimitriadis Y., Köppe C. (eds) Hybrid Learning Spaces. Understanding Teaching-Learning Practice. Springer, Cham.
Keywords: Hybrid learning spaces, Hybrid learning, Blended learning 

Howell. (2022). HyFlex model of higher education: understanding the promise of flexibility. On the Horizon, 30(4), 173–181.
Keywords: literature review, access, equity

Jacka, L. & Lindsay, J. (2022). Flexible Learning and the Virtual Campus. In S. Wilson, N. Arthars, D. Wardak, P. Yeoman, E. Kalman, & D.Y.T. Liu (Eds.), Reconnecting relationships through technology. Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on Innovation, Practice and Research in the Use of Educational Technologies in Tertiary Education, ASCILITE 2022 in Sydney: e22154.
Keywords: HyFlex, student experience

Lavigne, J. E., Groman, A., & Price, M. (2022). Teaching Implicit Bias and Its Management in the Pain Care of Sickle Cell Anemia Patients in a Hyflex Pre-Professional Classroom During COVID-19. Pain Medicine (Malden, Mass.)23(3), 435–439.
Keywords: Medical education, HyFlex teaching, implicit bias

Magana, A. J., Karabiyik, T., Thomas, P., Jaiswal, A., Perera, V., and Dworkin, J. (2022). Teamwork facilitation and conflict resolution training in a HyFlex course during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Research Journal for Engineering Education. January 21, 2022. Available online at
Keywords: HyFlex, team-based learning, group projects, pandemic, engineering education, active learning, cooperative learning, course design

Mentzer, Krishna, B., Kotangale, A., & Mohandas, L. (2022). HyFlex environment: addressing students’ basic psychological needs. Learning Environments Research, 1–19.
Keywords: synchronous HyFlex, psychological needs, self-determination theory

Mushtaha, E., Abu Dabous, S., Alsyouf, I., Ahmed, A., & Abdraboh, N. R. (2022). The challenges and opportunities of online learning and teaching at engineering and theoretical colleges during the pandemic. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 13(6), 101770–.
Keywords: Pandemic, student satisfaction, mental health, hybrid learning, HyFlex

Nelson, Berg, E. A., Wood, N., & Hill, B. (2022). Student Engagement in HyFlex Courses During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of College Student Development, 63(1), 101–105.
Keywords: student engagement, COVID-19 pandemic

Othman. (2022). Explorer les formations comodales en langues. ALSIC : apprentissage des langues et systèmes d’information et de communication. Flight 24, No. 2, 2021. Available online at
Keywords: Comodal, language instruction

Peredrienko T. Y., Balandina E. S., Chernysheva A. M. (2022). Students’ Self-Realisation in the Hybrid Teaching Environment. Pedagogy: Theory & Practice 7(4), pp 377-383.
Keywords: Hybrid, HyFlex, Self-realization, pandemic

Radwan. (2022). The post-pandemic future of higher education. Dean & Provost23(6), 1–5.
Keywords: Resilience, post-pandemic, student-centered

Raes, A. (2022). Exploring Student and Teacher Experiences in Hybrid Learning Environments: Does Presence Matter?. Postdigit Sci Educ 4, 138–159.
Keywords: Hybrid learning environments, Engagement, Learning space, Teaching space, User experience

Reed, & Allen, J. A. (2022). Suddenly hybrid : managing the modern meeting. Wiley.
Keywords: hybrid meeting

Sanchez-Piziani, R., Detyna, M., Dance, S., and Gomez-Agustina, L. (2022). Hybrid Flexible (HyFlex) seminar delivery – A technical overview of the implementation. Building and Environment v.216. Available online 25 March 2022.
Keywords: HyFlex Technology, Audio, Teaching Environment

Shek, Zhu, X., Li, X., & Dou, D. (2022). Satisfaction with HyFlex Teaching and Law-abiding Leadership Education in Hong Kong University Students Under COVID-19. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 1–26.
Keywords: HyFlex teaching, Course evaluation, Leadership education, National security

Thomson, R., Fisher, J., & Steinert, Y. (2022) Twelve tips for small group teaching 2.0 – Rebooted for remote and HyFlex learning, Medical Teacher, DOI: 10.1080/0142159X.2022.2040735
Keywords: Remote learning, HyFlex learning, small group teaching, facilitation, technology-enhanced learning, online learning


Bowers, Chen, Y.-L., Clifton, Y., Gamez, M., Giffin, H. H., Johnson, M. S., Lohman, L., & Pastryk, L. (2021). Reflective Design in Action: A Collaborative Autoethnography of Faculty Learning Design. TechTrends66(1), 17–28.
Keywords: HyFlex, Multi-access, Collaborative autoethnography, Course design, Design practice, Emotion, Iterative design, Faculty design, Learning design, Reflective practice

Bregnhøj, and Mathiasen, H. (2021). Hvad kan HyFlex-organiseret undervisning?: de studerendes tilgang. [What can HyFlex-organized teaching do? – the students approach] Læring Og Medier14(24).
Keywords: Hyflex-organiseret undervisning, kommunikation, undervisningsmiljøer, de studerendes stemme [Hyflex-organized teaching, communication, teaching environments, the voice of students]

Calafiore, and Giudici, E. (2021). HYBRID VERSUS HYFLEX INSTRUCTION IN AN INTRODUCTORY FINANCE COURSE. International Journal of Education Research, 16(1), 40–51.
Keywords: HyFlex, Student learning, non-traditional students

Carter, M. M. (2021). Study of a HyFlex mathematics course at Delaware technical community college (Order No. 28494877). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: The Humanities and Social Sciences Collection. (2572623202).
Keywords: HyFlex, Mathematics Instruction

Chicca J. (2021). Designing Courses Using the HyFlex Model. Nurse educator, 10.1097/NNE.0000000000000991. Advance online publication.
Keywords: COVID-19, instructional strategies, nursing

Colfer, Johri, N., and Wagner, S. L. (2021). A Case Study of MHA Faculty and Student Experiences in Adapting Learning Modality Options to Hybrid Flexible (HyFlex) During the COVID-19 Pandemic. The Journal of Health Administration Education, 38(1), 441–466. Available online:
Keywords: HyFlex, pandemic

Furse, C. and Ziegenfuss, D. (2021). Chapter 11. HyFlex Flipping: Combining in-person and on-line teaching for the flexible generation. In K. T Selvan and K. F. Warnick (Eds.)Teaching Electromagnetics: Innovative approaches and pedagogcial strategies (1st ed). CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL. pp. 201-218.
Keywords: HyFlex, Flipped

Gatlin, A. R., Kuhn, W., Boyd, D., Doukopoulos, L., and McCall, C. P. (2021). Successful at scale: 500 faculty, 39 classrooms, 6 years: A case study. Journal of Learning Spaces, 10(1), 51-62.
words: HyFlex, Scale, Learning Spaces, Classrooms

Hadder, K., Pack, A., and Williams, L. (2021). Online learning in a time of crisis: A look at student and faculty perceptions of university responses to covid-19 and how it has impacted student and faculty satisfaction (Order No. 28415459). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: The Humanities and Social Sciences Collection. (2515700454).
Keywords: HyFlex, Pandemic response, student experience, faculty experience

Heilporn, G., and Lakhal, S. (2021). Converting a graduate-level course into a HyFlex modality: What are effective engagement strategies? The International Journal of Management Education, 19(1), 100454.
Keywords: Higher education, Online and blended learning, HyFlex, Student engagement, Instructional strategies

Heilporn, G., Lakhal, S., and Bélisle, M. (2021). An examination of teachers’ strategies to foster student engagement in blended learning in higher education. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 18(1), 25–25.
Keywords: Blended learning, course design, student engagement

Irvine, V. (2020). The Landscape of Merging Modalities. EDUCAUSE Review, 55(4).
Keywords: Blended Learning, Learning Environments, Online Learning

Johnson, D., Cahill, M., Choate, S., Roelfs, D., & Walsh, S. E. (2021). The Influence of Public Health Faculty on College and University Plans During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Public Health9, 745232–745232.
Keywords: COVID-19, instructional modality, public health, faculty expertise, university decision-making

Jongmuanwai, B., Simmatun, P., Teemueangsa, S., and Jedaman, P. (2021). Factors and Needs Assessment of Hyflex Learning with Science Activity Base For Strengthen Critical Thinking. Journal of Physics. Conference Series, 1835(1).
Keywords: Science, HyFlex, needs assessment

Jongmuanwai, B., Simmatun, P., Teemueangsa, S., and Jedaman, P. (2021). Models of Hyflex Learning a Having Activities Base Via Constructionism for Enhancing as Critical Thinking of Undergraduate Students’. Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology25(6), pp. 393 – 403. Retrieved from
Keywords: HyFlex, Science, Constructionism, Critical Thinking, Factors Model

Keiper, White, A., Carlson, C. D., and Lupinek, J. M. (2021). Student perceptions on the benefits of Flipgrid in a HyFlex learning environment. Journal of Education for Business96(6), 343–351.
Keywords: HyFlex; learning technology; student perceptions

Keshishi. (2021). Playful reflective thinking in a HyFlex classroom: using nostalgic games to engage students. Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education22.
Keywords: Hyflex classroom, nostalgia, playful learning, reflective thinking, social constructivism, Covid-19

Kohnke L. and Moorhouse, B. L. (2021) Adopting HyFlex in higher education in response to COVID-19: students’ perspectives, Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning, DOI: 10.1080/02680513.2021.1906641
Keywords: HyFlex, COVID-19, online learning, Zoom, higher education

Larsen, K., Robinson, C., Melnyk, J. A., Nicoletti, J., Gagnon, A., McLaughlin, K., and Hussaini, M. (2021). Finding our voice: Highly flexible ED for the hyflex world. To Improve the Academy: A Journal of Educational Development, 40(2). doi:
Keywords: teaching with technology, online teaching and learning, pivot pedagogy, HyFlex

Lavigne, Groman, A., and Price, M. (2021). Teaching Implicit Bias and Its Management in the Pain Care of Sickle Cell Anemia Patients in a Hyflex Pre-Professional Classroom During COVID-19. Pain Medicine (Malden, Mass.).
Keywords: HyFlex, student learning

Lohmann, M. J., Randolph, K. M., and Oh, J. H. (2021). Classroom Management Strategies for Hyflex Instruction: Setting Students Up for Success in the Hybrid Environment. Early Childhood Education Journal, DOI: 10.1007/s10643-021-01201-5
Keywords: Classroom management, Hyflex, Online learning, K12

MacIntyre, C. R., Costantino, V., Bian L., and Bethel, C. (2021) Effectiveness of facemasks for opening a university campus in Mississippi, United States – a modelling study, Journal of American College Health, DOI: 10.1080/07448481.2020.1866579
Keywords: campus, college, COVID-19, facemask, students

Miller, A. N., Sellnow, D. D., and Strawser, M. G. (2021). Pandemic pedagogy challenges and opportunities: instruction communication in remote, HyFlex, and BlendFlex courses. Communication Education, 70(2), 202–204.

Motoyama, Kadota, Y., Shigetoshi, K., Sugimoto, Y., and Ashihara, T. (2021). [Japanese language] University-wide Introduction of HyFlex Classes at Shiga University of Medical Science. Journal for Academic Computing and Networking, 25(1), 39–45.
Keywords: HyFlex, COVID-19 pandemic

Pastore, Kyosev, Y., Fassihi, A.-A., and Flax, B. (2021). Textile education during the 2020 pandemic: experiences in US, South Africa and Germany. Communications in Development and Assembling of Textile Products, 2(1), 18–33. p18-33
Keywords: covid, online education, textile education

Plews, Sweet, M., Sudbury, L., Malan, W., Waterbury, C., Savage, J., Provensal, E., Rose-Sinclair, K., and Chavez, M. (2021). From emergency remote teaching to hybrid NUflex: a collaborative approach to developing faculty into learning designers. Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education, 22.
Keywords: HyFlex, faculty development, resilient teaching, Covid-19

Raman, R., Sullivan, N., Zolbanin, H., Nittala, L., Hvalshagen, M., and Allen, R. (2021). Practical Tips for HyFlex Undergraduate Teaching During a Pandemic. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 48, pp. 218-225.  
Keywords: HyFlex Teaching, Undergraduate Teaching, COVID-19, Practical Teaching Tips, Group Work, Actionable Tips

Rider, J. and Moore, A. (2021). Scaling HyFlex for the Post-Pandemic Campus. EDUCAUSE Review – Teaching and Learning (August 13, 2021). Available online:
Keywords: strategic planning, post-pandemic, scaling, implementation

Romero-Hall, & Ripine, C. (2021). Hybrid Flexible Instruction: Exploring Faculty Preparedness. Online Learning (Newburyport, Mass.), 25(3), 289–312.
Keywords: Faculty; Faculty Preparedness; Online Teaching; HyFlex Instruction

Rosen, D. J. (2021). BlendFlex and HyFlex models to increase student engagement and retention. Adult Literacy Education, 3(2), 73-78.
Keywords: HyFlex, engagement, retention, BlendFlex

Rosillo, N., and Montes, N. (2021). Escape room dual mode approach to teach maths during the COVID-19 era. Mathematics, 9(20), 2602.
Keywords: HyFlex, Pandemic response, student experience

Shashidhar, A. (2021). HyFlex: The Future of Workspaces. Business World (India).
Keywords: HyFlex, workplace

Verrecchia, and McGlinchey, M. J. (2021). Teaching During Covid: The Effectiveness of the HyFlex Classroom in a 300 Level Statistics Class. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 9(3), 23–27.
Keywords: HyFlex classroom; face-to-face classroom; independent samples t-tests

Wigal, C. M. (2021). Teaching the design process in a HyFlex environment. Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, 21(10), 226-235.
Keywords: HyFlex, instructional design, design education, team-based projects

Zehler, Cole, B., and Arter, S. (2021). Hyflex Simulation: A Case Study of a Creative Approach to Unprecedented Circumstances. Clinical Simulation in Nursing60, 64–68.
Keywords: HyFlex, nursing education, remote learning, distance learning, simulation, observer, participation, undergraduate nursing


BohatyretsV. (2020). Benefits of HyFlex learning in creating a positive students’ experience. Mediaforum8, 165-172. Retrieved from
Keywords: HyFlex teaching/learning, students, Covid-19, flexibility, adaptability, positive experience, hybrid online course

Colasante, M., Bevacqua, J. & Muir, S. (2020). Flexible hybrid format in university curricula to offer students in-subject choice of study mode: An educational design research project. Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice, 17(3).
Keywords: higher education, flexible hybrid curriculum, personalisation

Ensmann, S.Y., Gomez-Vasquez, L., Sturgill, R., and Whiteside, A. L. (2020). A Pandemic Case Journal of One Higher Education Institution. Quarterly Review of Distance Education21(3), 19–22.
Keywords: Pandemics, COVID-19, Educational Technology, Technology Uses in Education, Online Courses, Blended Learning, Higher Education, College Students, College Faculty, Teacher Role

Keiper, M. C., White, A., Carlson, C. D. and Lupinek, J. M. (2020) Student perceptions on the benefits of Flipgrid in a HyFlex learning environment, Journal of Education for Business, DOI: 10.1080/08832323.2020.1832431
Keywords: Hybrid flexible methodology, HyFlex, learning technology,  online learning, student perceptions

Kim, J., & Maloney, E.J. (2020). Scenario 13. HyFlex, in The Low-Density University15 Scenarios for Higher Education. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press., doi:10.1353/book.77218. Available online (open access) at
Keywords: HyFlex, Future-thinking

Lakhal, S., Mukamurera, J., Bédard, ME. et al. Features fostering academic and social integration in blended synchronous courses in graduate programs. Int J Educ Technol High Educ 17, 5 (2020).
Keywords: Blended synchronous courses, Blended synchronous learning, Academic integration, Social integration, Higher education

* Magna Publications. (2020). Strategies that work in Traditional and HyFlex classrooms (many strategies to choose from, many authors). The Journal of Faculty Development; Madison, 34(3), pp. 58-98.

Naffi, N. (2020). The Hyber-Flexible Course Design Model (HyFlex): A Pedagogical Strategy for Uncertain Times. International Journal of Technologies in Higher Education, 17 (2), p. 136-143.
Keywords: COVID-19, Hybrid-Flexible course design model (HyFlex), higher education, instructional design, digital transformation, online teaching, formation comodale, pedagogical transformation, innovative pedagogical approach, equity

Raes, A., Detienne, L., Windey, I., & Depaepe, F. (2020). A systematic literature review on synchronous hybrid learning: Gaps identified. Learning Environments Research, 23(3), 269-290.
Keywords: Hyflex, Here or There Instruction, research gaps, blended synchronous

Rhoads, D. D. (2020). Traditional, Online or Both? A Comparative Study of University Student Learning and Satisfaction Between Traditional and Hyflex Delivery Modalities. Dissertation Concordia University Irvine, 2020, 148; 27995688.

Zemeckis, D. R. (2021). Offering a Hyflex Fisheries Science Course for Stakeholders of New Jersey’s Fisheries. Journal of Extension, 58(1), Article 10.
Keywords: fisheries management, fisheries science, Hyflex, webinar

The bibliography entries below (most 2019 and earlier) are reused from Appendix A. of the HyFlex book (published under a CC-BY license).
Reference: Beatty, B. J. (2019). Bibliography of Hybrid-Flexible Literature (using various terms). In B. J. Beatty (Ed.), Hybrid-Flexible Course Design. EdTech Books.

Abdelmalak, M. (March, 2013). HyFlex course design: A case study of an educational technology course. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education (SITE) International Conference, New Orleans, LA USA.

Abdelmalak, M. (2014). Towards Flexible Learning for Adult Students: HyFlex Design. In M. Searson & M. Ochoa (Eds.), Proceedings of SITE 2014–Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 706-712). Jacksonville, Florida, United States: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved April 4, 2019 from

Abdelmalak, M., Parra, J. (2016, October) Expanding Learning Opportunities for Graduate Students with
HyFlex Course Design.
 International Journal of Online Pedagogy and Course Design 6(4).

Abdelmalak, M. M., & Parra, J. L. (2018). Case Study of HyFlex Course Design: Benefits and Challenges for Graduate Students. In R. Sharma (Ed.), Innovative Applications of Online Pedagogy and Course Design (pp. 298-317). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Alexander, M.M., Lynch, J.E., Rabinovich, T., & Knutel, P.G. (2014). Snapshot of a hybrid learning environment. The Quarterly Review of Distance Learning, 15(1), 9-21.
Keywords: educational environment, blended learning, h igher education, online courses, web based instruction, deliery systems, student satisfaction, academic persistence, asynchronous communication, synchronous communication, educational technology, chalkboards, student surveys, feedback (response)

Beatty, B. (2006, October) Designing the HyFlex World- Hybrid, Flexible Classes for All Students. Paper presented at the Association for Educational Communication and Technology International Conference, Dallas, TX.

Beatty, B. (2007). Transitioning to an Online World: Using HyFlex Courses to Bridge the Gap. In C. Montgomerie & J. Seale (Eds.), Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2007–World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications (pp. 2701-2706). Vancouver, Canada: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved April 5, 2019 from

Beatty, B. (2007, October). Hybrid Classes with Flexible Participation Options – If you build it, how will they come? Proceedings of the Association for Educational Communication and Technology International Conference, Anaheim, CA.

Beatty, B. (2007, November). Blended Learning for Students with Choice: The HyFlex Course and Design Process. Peer-reviewed paper presented at the Thirteenth Sloan-C International Conference on Online Learning, Orlando, FL.

Beatty, B. (2008). HyFlex Delivery for US Army Counter Insurgency (COIN) Training Applications. In Lickteig, C. W., Bailenson, J., Beatty, B., Dunleavy, M., Graham, C. R., Kozlowski S.W., & Mayer, R. E.  Innovative Training Methods for the Contemporary Operating Environment: Contributions from the Consortium Research Fellows Program (ARI Special Report).  Arlington, VA:  U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.

Beatty, B. (2008). Sloan Consortium Effective Practice Award: Using the “HyFlex” Course and Design Process. Retrieved 04/04/2016 from

Beatty, B. (2009, October). Student Self-reflections on Learning in a Hybrid Course Environment: Do Participation Mode Differences Lead to Differences in Reflections? Peer-reviewed paper presented at the Association for Educational Communication and Technology International Conference, Louisville KY.

Beatty, B. (2011, November). HyFlex Course Design: A Summary Report on Five Years of Implementation. Peer-reviewed paper presented at the Association for Educational Communication and Technology International Conference, Jacksonville, FL.

Beatty, B. (2012, April). HyFlex Course Design: The Advantages of Letting Students Choose the Blend. Peer-reviewed paper presented at Sloan-C Blended Learning Conference, Milwaukee, WI.

Beatty, B. J. (2014). Hybrid courses with flexible participation – The HyFlex Course Design. In L. Kyei-Blankson and E. Ntuli (Eds.) Practical Applications and Experiences in K-20 Blended Learning Environments. (pp. 153-177). Hershey, PA:  IGI Global.

Beatty, B. J. (2019). Hybrid-Flexible Course Design: Implementing Student-Directed Hybrid Classes. EdTech Books. Available online:

Beatty, B., Littlefield, C., Miller, J., Rhoads, D., Shaffer, D., Shurance, M. and Beers, M. (2016, April) Hybrid Flexible Course and Program Design: Models for Student-Directed Hybrids. Paper and panel session presented at the OLC Innovate 2016 Conference, New Orleans, LA.

Bell, J., Sawaya, S., & Cain, W. (2014). Synchromodal classes: Designing for shared learning experiences between face-to-face and online students. International Journal of Designs for learning, 5(1), 68-82.

[French language] Bergeron, M.-H. (2014). Innovating to promote access to higher education in rural areas. Pédagogie Collégiale Vol. 27, No 4, Summer 2014. Retrieved from

Bevacqua, J. & Colasante, M. (2019). No Lines: Observations from a pilot project to re-imagine, design and implement a flexible student-centred approach to study mode selection. Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice, 16(1).
Keywords: higher education, student-centred, flexible study mode, online learning, digital learning, innovation,
curriculum design

Bevacqua, J. & Colasante, M. (2018). New shores: Preliminary observations from a proof-of-concept project, to define and design a student-centred approach to study mode selection. In M Campbell et al (Eds.) Proceedings ASCILITE2018: 35th International Conference on Innovation, Practice and Research in the Use of Educational Technologies in Tertiary Education, Geelong, VIC, 309-313.
Keywords: Student-centred; Digital learning; Innovation; Flexible study mode; Higher education

Binnewies, S., Wang, Z. (2019) Challenges of Student Equity and Engagement in a HyFlex Course. In C. Allan, C. Campbell, and J. Crough (Eds.) Blended Learning Designs in STEM Higher Education: Putting Learning First (pp. 209-230). Singapore: Springer Nature

Boelens, R., De Wever, B., & Voet, M. (2017). Four key challenges to the design of blended learning: A systematic literature review. Educational Research Review, 22, pp. 1-18. doi:

Bower, M., Dalgarno, B., Kennedy, G. E., Lee, M. J. W., & Kenney, J. (2015). Design and implementation factors in blended synchronous environments: Outcomes from a cross-case analysis. Computers & Education, 86, 1-17.

Bower, M.,Kennedy, G. E., Dalgarno, B., Lee, M. J. W., and Kenney, J. (2014). Blended synchronous learning: A handbook for educators.  Retrieved from

Bower M., Kenney, J., Dalgarno, B., Lee, M. J. W., & Kennedy, G. E. (2014). Patterns and principles for blended synchronous learning: Engaging remote and face-to-face learners in rich-media real-time collaborative activities. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 30(3), 261-272.

Butz, N. T., Stupnisky, R. H., Peterson, E. S., & Majerus, M. M. (2014). Self-determined motivation in synchronous hybrid graduate business programs: Contrasting online and on-campus students. Online Learning and Teaching, 10, 211-227.

Butz, N. T., Stupnisky, R. H. (2017). Improving student relatedness through an online discussion intervention: The application of self-determination theory in synchronous hybrid programs. Computers & Education, 114 (2017), pp. 117-138, 10.1016/j.compedu.2017.06.006

Day, S. & Verhaart, M. (2016). Determining the requirements for geographically extended learning (gxLearning): A multiple case study approach. In S. Barker, S. Dawson, A. Pardo, & C. Colvin (Eds.), Show Me The Learning. Proceedings ASCILITE 2016 Adelaide (pp. 182-191). 

Day, S., & Verhaart, M. (2016). Beyond Wi-Fi: Using Mobile devices for gxLearning in the field. In M. Verhaart, A. Sarkar, E. Erturk & R. Tomlinson (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th Annual Conference of Computing and Information Technology Education and Research in New Zealand incorporating the 29th Annual Conference of the NACCQ, Wellington, New Zealand, 11th-13th July 2016 (pp. 27-33). Retrieved from 

Detienne, L., Raes, A. & Depaepe, F. (2018). Benefits, Challenges and Design Guidelines for Synchronous Hybrid Learning: A Systematic Literature Review. In T. Bastiaens, J. Van Braak, M. Brown, L. Cantoni, M. Castro, R. Christensen, G. Davidson-Shivers, K. DePryck, M. Ebner, M. Fominykh, C. Fulford, S. Hatzipanagos, G. Knezek, K. Kreijns, G. Marks, E. Sointu, E. Korsgaard Sorensen, J. Viteli, J. Voogt, P. Weber, E. Weippl & O. Zawacki-Richter (Eds.), Proceedings of EdMedia: World Conference on Educational Media and Technology (pp. 2004-2009). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved September 20, 2019 from

Donovan, S. A. G. (2018). Mixed methods study of the fit instructional model on attributes of student success (Order No. 10935064). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: The Humanities and Social Sciences Collection. (2115548318). Retrieved from

Educause. (2010). Seven things you should know about the HyFlex course model. Retrieved 04/04/2016 from

Elder, S. J. (2018). Multi-Options: An Innovative Course Delivery Methodology. Nursing Education Perspectives 39(2), pp. 110-112.

Gobeil-Proulx, J. (2019). La perspective étudiante sur la formation comodale, ou hybride flexible. [What do university students think about hybrid-flexible, or HyFlex courses?] Revue internationale des technologies en pédagogie universitaire16(1), pp. 56-67. Available online:

Gounari, P. and Koutropoulos, A. (2015). Using Blended Principles to Bridge the Gap between Online and On-Campus Courses. In L. Kyei-Blankson and E. Ntuli (Eds.) Practical Applications and Experiences in K-20 Blended Learning Environments. (pp. 178-190). Hershey, PA:  IGI Global.

He, W., Gajski, D., Farkas, G., Warschauer, M. (2015). Implementing flexible hybrid instruction in an electrical engineering course: The best of three worlds? Computers & Education, vol 81, pp.59-68.

Hill, J., Yang, X., Kim, E. E., Oh, J, Choi, I., Branch, R. M., Lee, H., & Keisler, B. (2018). Creating a Flexibly Accessible Learning Environment. Conference presentation at Association for Educational Communications and Technology Annual Convention. Kansas City, MO. (2018, October).

Irvine, V. (2009). The emergence of choice in ‘multi-access’ learning environments: transferring locus of control of course access to the learner. In G. Siemens, C. Fulford (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2009, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Chesapeake, VA (2009), pp. 746-752.

Irvine, V. (2010). Exploring learner needs for collaboration and access. In J. Herrington, B. Hunter (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2010, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Chesapeake, VA (2010), pp. 1093-1097.

Irvine, V., Code, J., & Richards, L. (2013). Realigning higher education for the 21st century learner through multi-access learning. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 9(2), 172. 

[Spanish language] Juarez-Popoca, D., Gastelu, C. A. T., Herrera-Diaz, L. E. (2014). El modelo HyFlex: Una propuesta de formación híbrida y flexible. In I. E. Gamez (Ed.)  Los Modelos Tecno-Educativos, revolucionando el aprendizaje del siglo XXI,  pp. 127-142.

Koskinen, M. (2018). Understanding the Needs of Adult Graduate Students: An Exploratory Case Study of a Hyflex Learning Environment. Northeastern University, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 2018. 13419414.

Kyei-Blankson, L. & Godwyll, F. (2010). An Examination of Learning Outcomes in Hyflex Learning Environments. In J. Sanchez & K. Zhang (Eds.), Proceedings of E-Learn 2010–World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education (pp. 532-535). Orlando, Florida, USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved April 5, 2019 from

Kyei-Blankson, L., Godwyll, F., Nur-Awaleh, M. & Keengwe, J. (2011). The New Blend: When students are given the option to choose. In M. Koehler & P. Mishra (Eds.), Proceedings of SITE 2011–Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 433-436). Nashville, Tennessee, USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved April 5, 2019 from

Kyei-Blankson, L., Godwyll, F., Nur-Awaleh, M. (2014). Innovative blended delivery and learning: exploring student choice, experience, and level of satisfaction in a hyflex course. International Journal of Innovation and Learning 16(3), pp. 243-252.

Lafortune, A. M. (2018). Differences in Students’ Perceptions of the Community of Inquiry in a Blended Synchronous Delivery Mode. Université de Sherbrooke Dissertation.

Lakhal, S., Bateman, D. & Bédard, J. (2017). Blended Synchronous Delivery Mode in Graduate Programs: A Literature Review and Its Implementation in the Master Teacher Program. Collected Essays on Learning and Teaching 10, pp. 47-60.

Lakhal, S., Khechine, H. & Pascot, D. (2014). Academic Students’ Satisfaction and Learning Outcomes in a HyFlex Course: Do Delivery Modes Matter?. In T. Bastiaens (Ed.), Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning (pp. 1075-1083). New Orleans, LA, USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved June 21, 2019 from

Lieberman, M. (2018, January 24). Introducing a new(-ish) learning mode: Blendflex/hyflex. Inside Higher Ed. Available online:

Leijon, M., & Lundgren, B. (2016). Connecting physical and virtual spaces in a HyFlex pedagogic model with focus on interaction. Presented at: Designs for Learning conference. Designing New Learning Ecologies, Copenhagen, 2016, Aalborg, Denmark: Aalborg University Press.

Leijon, M., & Lundgren, B. (2019). Connecting Physical and Virtual Spaces in a HyFlex Pedagogic Model with a Focus on Teacher Interaction. Journal of Learning Spaces, 8(1), 2019.

Lightner, C. A., & Lightner-Laws, C. A. (2016). A blended model: simultaneously teaching a quantitative course traditionally, online, and remotely. Interactive Learning Environments24(1), 224–238.

Liu, C. A., & Rodriguez, R. C. (2019). Evaluation of the impact of the Hyflex learning model. International Journal of Innovation and Learning, 25(4), pp. 393-411.

Love, S. (2015). A Quantitative Inquiry into First Generation Students’ Readiness for Distance Education. n.p.: ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Malczyk, B. R. (2019). Introducing Social Work to HyFlex Blended Learning: A Student-centered Approach. Journal of Teaching in Social Work 39(4-5), pp. 414-428.

Marquart, M., Englisher, M., Tokieda, K., and Telfair-Garcia, A. (2018, February 22). One class, two modes of participation: Fully integrating online students into residential classes via web conferencing. Poster presented at the Columbia University Center for Teaching and Learning’s Celebration of Teaching and Learning Symposium, New York, NY. doi:10.7916/D8KW6TK3.

McCluskey, C. P. S., Shaffer, D. R., Grodziak, E. M., & Hove, K. W. (2012). Strategic Plan on FlexLearning. The Pennsylvania State University Lehigh Valley campus, Center Valley, PA.

McGee, P., & Anderson, M. (2013). Project realities: Shifting course delivery method . In Benson, A. D., Moore, J. L., & van Rooji, S. W. (Eds.) Cases on Educational Technology Planning, Design and Implementation: A Project Management Perspective, pp. 114-13. Hersey, PA: IGI Global.

McGee, P., & Reis, A. (2012). Blended course design: A synthesis of best practices. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 16(4), 7-22.

Meyer zu Hörste, H., and Vanderbeke, J. (2018). Multimedia Students: Engaging across platforms. An Investigation of Student Engagement in the Media and Communication Master Programme at Malmö University. Master’s thesis at Malmö universitet/Kultur och samhälle (2018).

Available online:

Miller, J. B., Risser, M. D., and Griffiths, R. P. (2013). Student Choice, Instructor Flexibility: Moving Beyond the Blended Instructional Model. Issues and Trends in Educational Technology 1(1), pp. 8-24. Available at:

Miller, W. (2011). Mode-neutral and the need to transform teaching. Public Administration Quarterly35(4), 446-465.

Mousa, M., Abdelmalak, M., and Parra, J. L. (2018). Case Study of HyFlex Course Design: Benefits and Challenges for Graduate Students. In R. C. Sharma (Ed.), Innovative Applications of Online Pedagogy and Course Design (pp. 298-317). Hershey, PA:  IGI Global.

Musgrove, A. & Bryan, V. C. (2014). Theory and Application: Construction of Multimodal eLearning. In V. X. Wang (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Education and Technology in a Changing Society, (pp. 1068-1083). Hershey, PA:  IGI Global. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-6046-5.ch079

Nortvig, A-M. (2014). E-learning in poly-topic settings. Electronic Journal of E-Learning12(2), 206-214.

Nur-Awaleh, M. , & Kyei-Blankson, L. (2010). Assessing e-learning and student satisfaction in a blended and flexible environment. 2010 International Conference on Information Society(pp. 481-483).

Parra, J. & Bontly, S.W. (2016). Transforming learning environments: Co-constructionism in higher education classrooms. In Proceedings of EdMedia 2016–World Conference on Educational Media and Technology (pp. 719-723). Vancouver, BC, Canada: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved September 13, 2019 from

[Spanish language] Popoca, D. J., Gastelu, C. A. T., and Diaz, L.E.H. (2014). El modelo HyFlex: Una propuesta de formación híbrida y flexible. In I. E. Gómez (Ed.). Los Modelos Tecno-Educativos, revolucionando el aprendizaje del siglo XXI. pp. 127-142. Universidad Veracruzana- Región Veracruz. 

Raes, A., Vanneste, P., Pieters, M., Windey, I., Van Den Noortgate, W., & Depaepe, F. (2020). Learning and instruction in the hybrid virtual classroom: An investigation of students’ engagement and the effect of quizzes. Computers & Education, 143, (2020) 103682.

Rasmussen, R. C. (2003). The quantity and quality of human interaction in a synchronous blended learning environment. Doctoral dissertation. Brigham Young University. Available from: ProQuest Dissertations & theses. (UMI No. 305345928).

Reed, P., Smith, B., & Sherrat, C. (2008). A new age of constructivism: ‘mode neutral’. E-Learning, 5(3), 310.
Retrieved from

Rhoads, D. D. (2020). Traditional, Online or Both? A Comparative Study of University Student Learning and Satisfaction Between Traditional and Hyflex Delivery Modalities. Dissertation Concordia University Irvine, 2020, 148; 27995688. Retrieved July 1, 2020 from 

Robertson, B. and Kelly, K. (2013). Operating a Very Large-Section, Hybrid Principles of Marketing Class at a Public University: Lessons Learned over Ten Years. Atlantic Marketing Journal 2(3), Article 10. Retrieved September 7, 2019 from

[Spanish language] Romero, H. Y., Chávez, N. V., and Gutiérrez, I. M. (2016). HyFlex, hybrid and flexible model for university education: Case study: Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja — Ecuador, 2016 11th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI), Las Palmas, 2016, pp. 1-4.

Schaffhauser, D. (2012). Tuning the Blend. Campus Technology, December 2012, pp. 22-24.

Smith B, Reed P & Jones C (2007) A ‘mode neutral’ Curriculum for Health Care Students. Possible? Desirable? RSC Conference. UK

Smith, B., Reed, P., and Jones, C. (2008) ‘Mode Neutral’ Pedagogy. European Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning.

Snelgrove, B. C. (2019). Examining the Effectiveness of BlendFlex Instruction in Relation to Student Academic Outcomes and Perceptions at a Two-Year Technical College in the Southeastern United States (Order No. 27738372). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: The Humanities and Social Sciences Collection. (2384210511).

Sowell, K., Saichaie, K., Bergman, J., & Applegate, E. (2019). High enrollment and HyFlex: The case for an alternative course model. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 30(2), 5-28.
Keywords: HyFlex, enrollment, large class

Staff Writers, (2013, January 17). The HyFlex Learning Model: Online Ed’s Most Customizable Idea Yet [Web log post]. Retreived from

[Chinese language] Su, M. (2013). Traditional Universities Need Innovative Change: An Interview with Prof. Brian Beatty. China Open Education Research, 19(1), pp. 4-8.

Taylor, B. C., and Fielder, R. L. (2014). Chapter 23. Hybrid Flexible Library Instruction (HyFli). In A. A. Pina and A. P. Mizell, Eds. Real-life Distance Education: Case Studies in Practice. Information Age Publishing, Incorporated. pp. 405-417.

Taylor, J. A., and Newton, D. (2012). Beyond Blended Learning: A case study of institutional change at an Australian university. Internet and Higher Education 18(2013) pp. 54-60.

Wright, D. (2016). The HyFlex Course Design: A Case Study on Adult and Career Education Courses. National Social Science Journal 48(2). pp. 88-93.

Tsuji, B., Pierre, A., Van Roon, P. & Vendetti, C. (2012). Web Versus Face-to-Face Tutorials: Why I Didn’t Go To Class In My Pyjamas. In T. Bastiaens & G. Marks (Eds.), Proceedings of E-Learn 2012–World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 1 (pp. 802-806). Montréal, Quebec, Canada: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved September 13, 2019 from

Verhaart, M. & Hagen-Hall, K. (2012). gxLearning, teaching to geographically extended classes. In M. Lopez, M. Verhaart (Eds.) Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Conference of the Computing and Information Technology Research and Education of New Zealand Conference (Incorporating the 25th NACCQ Conference), Christchurch, New Zealand. October 7-10. pp 75-81.

Weitze Laerke, C. (2016). Learning Design Patterns for Hybrid Synchronous Video-Mediated Learning Environments. In: Nortvig, A.-M., Sørensen, B. H., Misfeldt, M., Ørngreen, R., Allsopp, B. B., Henningsen, B. S., & Hautopp, H. (eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Designs for Learning, 1st ed., 236–252. Aalborg Universitetsforlag. DOI: 

[Spanish language] Yaguana Romero, H., Chavez, N., & Gutierrez, I. (2016). HyFlex, hybrid and flexible model for university education: Case study: Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja — Ecuador. 2016 11th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI), 2016, 1-4.

Yuskauskas, A., Shaffer, D., & Grodziak, E. (2015). Employing disruptive innovation in a nascent undergraduate health policy program. The Journal of Health Administration Education32(4), 515.


  • Brian Beatty

    Dr. Brian Beatty is Professor of Instructional Design and Technology in the Department of Equity, Leadership Studies and Instructional Technologies at San Francisco State University. At SFSU, Dr. Beatty pioneered the development and evaluation of the HyFlex course design model for blended learning environments, implementing a “student-directed-hybrid” approach to better support student learning.