Research Bibliography

Bibliography of research publications related to Hybrid-Flexible course designs (by any name, not just HyFlex). Hybrid-Flexible course designs provide instruction in a classroom and in at least one online mode (synchronous or asynchronous) and allow students to choose their mode of participation for each class session.

This bibliography includes approximately 256 entries that use the terms HyFlex or hybrid-flexible in the research title, and still, it is only representative, not exhaustive. These publications include several dozen PhD and EdD dissertations and MA theses, all of which provide thorough literature reviews fo additional related literature. 

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2023-2024 – 58 entries

Adeel, Z., Mladjenovic, S. M., Smith, S. J., Sahi, P., Dhand, A., Williams-Habibi, S., Brown, K., & Moisse, K. (2023). Student engagement tracks with success in-person and online in hybrid-flexible course. The Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 14(2).
Keywords: pre-pandemic, student engagement, student learning, student experience

Adi Badiozaman, I. F., Ling, V. M., & Ng, A. (2024). University Students’ Experiences and Reflection on Their Transition to HyFlex Learning During Post-COVID Times. Journal of Educational Technology Systems.
Keywords: student experience, HyFlex, faculty competency

Al Naimiy, H. M. K., Bettayeb, M., Elmehdi, H. M., & Shehadi, I. (2023). Effectiveness of HyFlex Simulation-Based Clinical Learning in Comparison to Traditional Learning in Undergraduate Clinical Education. In Future Trends in Education Post COVID-19. Springer.
Keywords: conference proceedings, evaluation

Amirova, A., Zhumabayeva, A., Zhunusbekova, A., Kalbergenova, S., Nygymanova, N., & Arenova, A. (2023). Effect of Using Hyflex Technology Learning on Preservice Teachers’ Success and Attitudes. International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology, 11(3), 623-642.
Keywords: teacher education, HyFlex efficacy

Amiruddin, A., Sunardi, S., & Setialaksana, W. (2024). Students’ technological skills and attitudes toward HyFlex learning: the mediating role of online self-regulated learning, blended learning perception, and preferred learning modes. Frontiers in Education (Lausanne), 8.
Keywords: HyFlex learning, Blended learning, student experience, self-regulated learning

Area-Moreira, Bethencourt-Aguilar, A., & Martín-Gómez, S. (2023). HyFlex: Enseñar y aprender de modo híbrido y flexible en la educación superior. [English translation: HyFlex: Hybrid and flexible teaching and learning in higher education] Revista iberoamericana de educación a distancia, 26(1), 141–161.
Keywords: HyFlex in higher education

Athens. (2023). Self-regulation, motivation, and outcomes in HyFlex classrooms. Educational Technology Research and Development, 1–19.
Keywords: Self-regulation, motivation, student experience, learning outcomes, HyFlex

Atkinson, S. P. (2023). Definitions of the Terms Open, Distance, and Flexible in the Context of Formal and Non-Formal Learning. Journal of Open, Flexible, and Distance Learning, 26(2).
Keywords: definitions

Boehm, M., & Boerboom, S. (2023). Faculty Experiences of HyFlex: An Exploratory Study. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 34(2), 43-47.
Keywords: faculty experience, faculty workload

Bockorny, Giannavola, T. M., Mathew, S., & Walters, H. D. (2023). Effective engagement strategies in HyFlex modality based on intrinsic motivation in students. Active Learning in Higher Education.
Keywords: HyFlex teaching, student engagement

Bozan, Gaskin, J., & Stoner, C. (2023). Student Engagement in the HyFlex and Online Classrooms: Lessons from the COVID-19 Pandemic. Technology, Knowledge and Learning.
Keywords: student engagement, pandemic

Buckley, J. B., Thompson, A. K., Tretter, T. R., Biesecker, C., Robinson, B. S., & Hammond, A. N. (2023). “Where I feel the most connected:” Community of Inquiry supporting sense of belonging in a HyFlex engineering course. The Internet and Higher Education, 100930-.
Keywords: interactive learning, student experience, engineering, learning community

Caldas Jayo, R., Neri Ayala, A. C., Muñoz Vilela, A. J., Susanibar Ramirez, E. T., & la Cruz Orbe, S. (2023). Analysis of the implementation of the HyFlex model. Salud Ciencia y Tecnología.
Keywords: Peru, implementation, faculty experience, learning improvement

Cheng, K. Y. (2023). HyFlex Challenges and Strategies for Matured Learners: Construction Engineering Higher Education in New Zealand During the Pandemic. The Journal of Educators Online, 20(2).
Keywords: adult learners

Chiang. (2023). Comparing Student Learning and Course Evaluation in Face-to-Face, Online and HyFlex Teaching Modalities Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Social Media and Interactive Learning Environments, 1(1), 1–.
Keywords: student learning, student satisfaction

Compton, M., Standen, A., & Watson, B. (2023). Not as a temporary fluke but as standard’: realising the affordances of hybrid and online teaching for inclusive and sustainable education. Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education, 26.
Keywords: hybrid, HyFlex, disability, online education, inclusion, accessibility

Cumming, T. M., Gilanyi, L., & Han, C. (2024). Hyflex delivery mode in a postgraduate course: instructor and student perspectives. Discover Education, 3(1), 1–14.
Keywords: HyFlex, faculty experience, student experience

Del Castillo. (2023). Contextualizing The Higher Education In A PostPandemic Era: A Trisectoral Perception. Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 14, 185–197.
Keywords: HyFlex learning design, perception, post-pandemic era, trisectoral

Detyna, & Koch, M. (2023). An Overview of Student Perceptions of Hybrid Flexible Learning at a London HEI. Journal of Interactive Media in Education : JiME, 2023(1), 4–4.
Keywords: HyFlex, student experience, engagement

Detyna, Sanchez-Pizani, R., Giampietro, V., Dommett, E. J., & Dyer, K. (2023). Hybrid flexible (HyFlex) teaching and learning: climbing the mountain of implementation challenges for synchronous online and face-to-face seminars during a pandemic. Learning Environments Research, 26(1), 145–159.
Keywords: implementation, cognitive load

Diala, L. U., Zhao, L., Parra, F., & Davis, L. (2023). Does the HyFlex Learning Environment Affect Student Likelihood to Whistle-Blow on Academic Dishonesty? Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, 20(4), 159-174. 
Keywords: academic dishonesty, student experience, student engagement

Eduljee, Murphy, L., Emigh-Guy, M., & Croteau, K. (2023). Student Perceptions about HyFlex/Hybrid Delivery of Courses during the COVID-19 Pandemic. College Teaching, ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print), 1–12.
Keywords: student perceptions, engagement

Eshet, Dickman, N., & Ben Zion, Y. (2023). Academic integrity in the HyFlex learning environment. Heliyon, 9(2), e13301–.
Keywords: academic integrity, HyFlex teaching, student characteristics

Farrag, Abushammala, M. F., & Kuckian, S. (2023). Transitioning from Pandemic to Endemic Pedagogy: Redesigning Teaching and Learning. SHS Web of Conferences, 156, 5003–.
Keywords: Civil Engineering, Oman, Covid-19, HyFlex

Filiz, O., Kaya, M. H., & Adiguzel, T. (2024). HyFlex teaching experience and reflections in K-12. Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 14(1), e202402-.
Keywords: K12, faculty development, student learning, evaluation

Henley, M. D. (2023). Comparison of Community of Inquiry Presences and Student Performance Between Students Who Take HyFlex Class Versus Asynchronous Online Class (Order No. 30693528). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: The Humanities and Social Sciences Collection. (2886779805).
Keywords: dissertation, learning community, student learning, student experience

Ho, Yeh, C.-C., Wang, J.-Y., Hu, R.-H., & Lee, P.-H. (2023). Linking the choice of the class format and preclass learning experiences sheds light on a step further in blended medical education. Medical Education Online, 28(1), 2186207–2186207.
Keywords: online, HyFlex, synchronous, blended learning, class format preference

Intasena, A., & Worapun, W. (2024). Exploring the Efficacy of HyFlex Learning for Enhancing Reading Comprehension Skills of Secondary School Students: A Research and Development Study. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 23(1), 24–38.
Keywords: HyFlex development, K12, learning outcomes, language learning

Kerensky, K. (2023). Defining “Distance Education” in Policy: Differences among Federal, State, and Accreditation Agencies. ().WICHE Cooperative for Educational Technologies (WCET).
Keywords: HyFlex definition, distance education policy

Keshavarz, M. (2023). Book review – Hybrid-Flexible Course Design: Implementing Student-Directed Hybrid Classes. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 24(1), 83-86.
Keywords: book review

Khan, S., Battestilli, L., Bohorquez, E., & Fogleman, A. (2023). Hybrid Flexible (HyFlex) Instruction in Nutrition Education: What, How, Why and When to Use? Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 55(7), 97–97.
Keywords: strategy, design, student experience, motivation, pandemic

Kim, S. (2023). Understanding How Students Interact with a Flipped HyFlex Course in Computer ScienceUC San Diego. ProQuest ID: Kim_ucsd_0033M_22182. Merritt ID: ark:/13030/m53v74sj. Retrieved from
Keywords: dissertation, HyFlex teaching, flipped classroom, student experience, teaching guidance

Kimble, C. A., & Brazeau, G. A. (2023). Developing and Implementing a HyFlex Elective Course in Medical Affairs Addressing a Curricular Gap. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 87(8), 100290-.
Keywords: medical education, course design

Krishna, B. (2023). Effect of Modalities on Group Performance in Hyflex Environment (Order No. 30685608). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: The Humanities and Social Sciences Collection; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: The Sciences and Engineering Collection. (2890696308).
Keywords: dissertation, group learning, student exeprience

LeBlanc, Grossman, T. A., & Bartolacci, M. R. (2023). Managing the Hyflex Scheduling Activity Using Excel Dynamic Arrays. Transactions on Education.
Keywords: implementation

Li, K. C., Wong, B. T. M., Kwan, R., Hon, T. C., Wu, M. M. F., & Cheung, S. K. S. (2023). Evaluation of Hybrid Learning and Teaching Practices: The Perspective of Academics. Sustainability, 15(8), 6780.
Keywords: teacher preparation, evaluation

Mahande, R. D. (2023). Students’ Perceptions of and Preferences for Equity in Hybrid Flexible Learning Modalities. The Journal of Educators Online, 20(4).
Keywords: student perceptions, student choice, equity

Mahande, R. D., Setialaksana, W., Abdal, N. M., & Lamada, M. (2024). Exploring HyFlex learning modality through adaption-innovation theory for student learning equity. Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 14(1), e202410-.
Keywords: HyFlex, equity, learning outcomes, student experience

Mentzer, N.J., Isabell, T.M. & Mohandas, L. (2023). The impact of interactive synchronous HyFlex model on student academic performance in a large active learning introductory college design course. J Comput High Educ.
Keywords: HyFlex teaching, student learning, evaluation, flipped course, active learning

Milman, N. B. (2023). Teaching Using the HyFlex Approach. Distance Learning, 20(1), 53-55. 
Keywords: faculty experience

Mobo, F. D., & Garcia, A. L. R. (2023). Challenges in Hyflex Learning in Zambales Philippines. Online Submission, 2(1), 1-4. 
Keywords: student experience, faculty experience, student preference

Morento, I. P., Sayson, A., Ursal, G., & Ursal, G. (2024). Level of Stress, Coping Strategies and Academic Achievement of College Students during HyFlex Learning. Diversitas Journal, 9(1).
Keywords: HyFlex, student experience, stress management

Naidoo, Scozzafava, J., Steel, E., Vangsness, R., Woodburn, J., Etts, K., & Feinn, R. (2023). The Effects of the HyFlex Learning Model on Undergraduate College Student Activity Levels. Fortune Journal of Health Sciences, 6(2).
Keywords: student engagement

Nõuakas, K., Petjärv, B., Labanova, O., Retšnoi, V., & Uukkivi, A. (n.d.). Challenges of Hybrid Flexible (HyFlex) Learning on the Example of a University of Applied Sciences. In Learning in the Age of Digital and Green Transition (pp. 257–268). Springer International Publishing.
Keywords: conference proceedings, student experience, student satisfaction

Oliwa, R. (2024). Contextualising the Hyflex Model of Instruction for Language Classes. Theory and Practice of Second Language Acquisition.
Keywords: HyFlex, language learning

Pagano, K. M., Cook, A. E., & Halstrom, A. (2024). Emerging Stronger with the HyFlex Teaching Design. In Emerging Stronger (1st ed., Vol. 1, pp. 21–38). Routledge.
Keywords: HyFlex, COVID-19 pandemic, implementation

Pellitteri, M. (2023). 267. Using online and hyflex methods to teach media practice in China in 2020 and 2021. In The Routledge Handbook of Media Education Futures Post-Pandemic (1st ed., pp. 267–276). Routledge.
Keywords: faculty experience, HyFlex teaching, transition to HyFlex

O’Ceallaigh, Connolly, C., & O Brien, E. (2023). Hyflex Pedagogies: Nurturing teacher presence in multi-modal learning spaces post-pandemic. Routledge Open Research, 2, 2–.
Keywords: HyFlex, teacher presence, engagement

Penrod, J. M. (2023). Considerations for Implementing and Supporting Hybrid and HyFlex Learning in a Higher Education Institution (Order No. 30671459). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: The Humanities and Social Sciences Collection; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: The Sciences and Engineering Collection. (2856728532).
Keywords: dissertation, faculty experience, classroom technology, flexible learning, student experience, access to learning

Perius, J. (2024). Guest speakers: Synchronous global engagement through use of the HyFlex modality in an international business course. Journal of Education for Business, 1–9.
Keywords: HyFlex, Guest speakers, Global engagement

Plailek, T., Kitjarak, T., & Plailek, W. (2023). Improving Creative Problem-Solving Abilities of English Students through HyFlex Learning Management and Project-Based Learning. Higher Education Studies, 13(4), 128-.
Keywords: problem-based learning, student experience, student satisfaction

Savignano, M., & Holbrook, J. (2023). Increasing Community in a HyFlex Class During COVID-19. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 52(2), 187–202.
Keywords: learning community, student experience, teacher education, PLC

UEOKA, S., & NAKATOU, M. (2024). The Difference in Learning Effectiveness between HyFlex Training Modes. Japan Journal of Educational Technology, 47090-.
Keywords: HyFlex, learning outcomes, teacher training, equivalency

Vilhauer. (2023). Moving Forward with HyFlex. Schole : a Journal of Leisure Studies and Recreation Education, 38(2), 130–131.
Keywords: HyFlex design, strategy

Vold, T., & Kiønig, L. V. (2023). HyFlex learning as support for lifelong learning. European Conference on E-Learning, 22(1), 358–363.
Keywords: student preference, lifelong learning, synchronous HyFlex

Wong, B., Li, K. C., Chan, H. T., & Cheung, S. K. S. (2023). HyFlex Learning Research and Practice: A Longitudinal Analysis. Sustainability (Basel, Switzerland), 15(12), 9699–.
Keywords: evaluation, HyFlex, literature review

Wongsonadi, Sasmita, K., Hikmah, Hadiyanti, P., & Hutama, N. (2023). Pengembangan Kapasitas Produksi Merchandise Desa Wisata Edukasi Rawagede Berbasis Pembelajaran Hyflex. [English translation: Development of Rawagede Educational Tourism Village Merchandise Production Capacity Development Based on Hyflex Learning] Sarwahita, 19, 595–602.
Keywords: HyFlex, Cinderamata, human capital, social capital

2022 – 70 entries

Adams. (2022). Hyflex: A Leaderships’ Perspective of Self-Efficacy Post-Pandemic. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Keywords: dissertation, faculty experience, self-efficacy, hybrid-flexible, non-traditional learner, tribal college, distance education

Armstrong. (2022). Gaps in Professional Development and Knowledge of Teaching HyFlex Courses in Higher Education. In ProQuest LLC. ProQuest LLC.
Keywords: dissertation, faculty development, faculty experience

Baillifard, Carbonel, H., & Jullien, J.-M. (2022). Enseignement bimodal simultané : réalités et perceptions des étudiants et des enseignants. [English translation: Simultaneous Bimodal Instruction: Realities and Perceptions of Students and Teachers.] Distances et Médiations Des Savoirs, 38(38).
Keywords: simultaneous bimodal, HyFlex, student experience, teaching practice, learning spaces

Bărbuceanu, C. D. (2022). HyFlex- Rethinking Courses in On-line Teaching. Revista de Stiinte Politice, 73, 241–247.
Keywords: HyFlex, language learning, COVID-19 pandemic

Barclay, A., Ceccolini, K., Clarke, K., Domonchuk, N., Shapiro, S., Singh, J., Young, M., Hayman, J., Beer, J., & Arseneau, C. (2022). HyFlex Course Design and Teaching Strategies. eCampus Ontario Open Library. Available online:
Keywords: HyFlex Design, teaching strategies, student experience, faculty experience, evaluation

Boylan, F., Gorham, G., Gorman, C., Harvey, J., Lynch, L., Minto, N. & Mottiar. Z. (2022). Trialling HyFlex at TU Dublin – stakeholders’ voices and experiences. International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage, 10(2).
Keywords: HyFlex pilot, faculty experience, student experience

Buatois, E. M., Akunna, A. A., Bailey, T., Coomer, T. N., Putnam, W. C., Hall, R. G., 2nd, Pass, S. E., & MacLaughlin, E. J. (2022). Using the HyFlex model to deliver a capstone seminar course. Currents in pharmacy teaching & learning14(9), 1109–1115.
Keywords: Capstone; Engagement; Grand rounds; HyFlex; Hybrid

Burdick, M. N. & Hallman, H. L. (2022). Chapter 6. Shifts in Form, Content, and Communication: The Rise of Online, Hybrid, and HyFlex Learning. In At the crossroads of pedagogical change in higher education: Exploring the work of faculty developers. (pp. 71-84). Routledge.
Keywords: instructional design, faculty development, HyFlex learning and teaching

Çetinkaya, A., & Kırık, A. M. (2022). Distance Education in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Opportunities and Threats. In Handbook of Research on Digital Citizenship and Management During Crises (pp. 17-33). IGI Global.
Keywords: pandemic, distance learning, hyflex learning

Chan, Dou, Y., Jiang, Y., & Li, P. (2022). A 4C Model for Hyflex Classrooms. 2022 IEEE 46th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference (COMPSAC), 145–150.
Keywords: HyFlex classroom, technology

Chen, L. (2022). Designing Online Discussion for HyFlex Learning. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 8(1), 191–198.
Keywords: Digital learning tools, HyFlex learning, interface design, online discussion.

Clifft, & Assiouras, I. (2022). The transformation of post pandemic hybrid teaching and learning through experiences of remote digital learning in French business schools. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, October 21, 2022, 1–14.
Keywords: Hybrid teaching, blended teaching, HyFlex classroom, marketing education, French business schools, COVID-19 pandemic

Davie. (2022). Evaluation of the HyFlex, Hybrid, and Asynchronous Online Teaching Modalities on Student Learning in Graduate Microbiology Coursework. The FASEB Journal, 36(S1).
Keywords: student learning outcomes, STEM education

Daud Mahande, & Abdal, N. M. (2022). A HyFlex learning measurement model based on students’ cognitive learning styles to create equitable learning. World Journal on Educational Technology, 14(5), 1485–1497.
Keywords: HyFlex evaluation, student learning, learning equity

Davie. (2022). Evaluation of the HyFlex, Hybrid, and Asynchronous Online Teaching Modalities on Student Learning in Graduate Microbiology Coursework. The FASEB Journal, 36(S1).
Keywords: HyFlex course, student learning, microbiology, science

Detyna, Sanchez-Pizani, R., Giampietro, V., Dommett, E. J., & Dyer, K. (2022). Hybrid flexible (HyFlex) teaching and learning: climbing the mountain of implementation challenges for synchronous online and face-to-face seminars during a pandemic. Learning Environments Research, 1–15.
Keywords: Dual mode, innovation, learning space, HyFlex teaching, classroom technology, implementation, pandemic

Donham, Pohan, C., Menke, E., & Kranzfelder, P. (2022). Increasing Student Engagement through Course Attributes, Community, and Classroom Technology: Lessons from the Pandemic. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education, 23(1).
Keywords: HyFlex, student engagement, microbiology, science

Douaihy. (2022). High Expectations for Hybrid Education: How to Enrich HyFlex Modalities for Student Engagement and Success. System Contractor News, 29(2), 32.
Keywords: HyFlex expectation, student engagement

Eduljee, Chakravarty, R., Croteau, K., & Murphy, L. (2022). Understanding Research Trends in HyFlex (hybrid flexible) Instruction Model: A Scientometric Approach. International Journal of Instruction, 15(4), 935–954.
Keywords: HyFlex research

Eyal, L., & Gil, E. (2022). Hybrid Learning Spaces — A Three-Fold Evolving Perspective. In: Gil E., Mor Y., Dimitriadis Y., Köppe C. (eds) Hybrid Learning Spaces. Understanding Teaching-Learning Practice. Springer, Cham.
Keywords: Hybrid learning spaces, Hybrid learning, Blended learning 

Flores Reyes, M.R. (2022) Flexible learning environments: Minoritized college students’ experiences in HyFlex (Doctoral Dissertation). [Also available – free – at]
Keywords: HyFlex student experience, equity in HyFlex, minoritized students

Frias. (2022). Getting Ready to Hyflex: An Assessment of the DLSU Law Students’ Use of Online Library Resources and Resources. University Library at a New Stage of Social Communications Development. Conference Proceedings, 7, 36–56.
Keywords: student support

Fudeuchi, M. Cutting, M., Hata, K., Tsutsui, K., Hirai, T. (2022). Creating a Multicultural Collaborative Learning Experience Through Hybrid (HyFlex) Classes: The Case of a Freshman Course at Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University. Journal of the Japan Association for Developmental Education, 2022.03.11.01–.
Keywords: global education, freshman education, intercultural communication, teaching assistants, online class, HyFlex class

Gandhi, S., Glaman, R., Jordan, A., DiChristofaro, D., Clark, K., Gandhi, V., & Smith, J. (2023). Identifying Barriers to Basic Needs, Academic Success, and the Vaccination Pattern among College Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(20), 6924.
Keywords: pandemic response, access to learning, student preparedness

Gascoigne. (2022). Reemerging Spaces: Examining Classroom Climates in the HyFlex Realm. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 25(1).
Keywords: HyFex classrooms, technology

Guidry. (2022). Hyflex Courses: A “Flex” or a Flop? Journal of Instructional Pedagogies, 27.
Keywords: HyFlex design, student learning, student satisfaction

Haksgaard. (2022). Student response systems in the family law classroom. Family Court Review, 60(4), 722–735.
Keywords: HyFlex teaching, student engagement, student response systems, law education, formative assessment

Howell. (2022). HyFlex model of higher education: understanding the promise of flexibility. On the Horizon, 30(4), 173–181.
Keywords: literature review, access, equity

Huh, & Lee, G. (2022). A Study of Undergraduate Student’s Perception of Learning Process and Outcomes in Hyflex Learning. The Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 21, 13(2), 2157–2170.
Keywords: HyFlex learning, learning engagement, collaborative learning process, perceived learning outcomes, higher education, HyFlex class, immersion, cooperation process

Jacka, L. & Lindsay, J. (2022). Flexible Learning and the Virtual Campus. In S. Wilson, N. Arthars, D. Wardak, P. Yeoman, E. Kalman, & D.Y.T. Liu (Eds.), Reconnecting relationships through technology. Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on Innovation, Practice and Research in the Use of Educational Technologies in Tertiary Education, ASCILITE 2022 in Sydney: e22154.
Keywords: HyFlex, student experience

Karam, K., S., & Kermani, M. M. (2022). Work-in-Progress: HyFlex Hands-On Hardware Security Education During COVID-19. 2022 IEEE World Engineering Education Conference (EDUNINE), 1–4.
Keywords: HyFlex, hardware security education, computer engineering, hardware laboratory

Klaiber. (2022). Hybrid in a HyFlex Room: Leveraging Technology to Increase Developmental English Success. Research & Teaching in Developmental Education, 4–7.
Keywords: HyFlex classroom, technology, student learning

Korson. (2022). A place-based approach to blended learning. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, Sep 8, 2022, 1–20.
Keywords: HyFlex learning, experiential learning, sense of belonging, blended learning

Lavigne, J. E., Groman, A., & Price, M. (2022). Teaching Implicit Bias and Its Management in the Pain Care of Sickle Cell Anemia Patients in a Hyflex Pre-Professional Classroom During COVID-19. Pain Medicine (Malden, Mass.)23(3), 435–439.
Keywords: Medical education, HyFlex teaching, implicit bias

Lee, & Han, S. (2022). Analyzing Higher Education Instructor’s Perception and Future Directions on Hyflex Learning. The Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 21, 13(2), 2589–2604.
Keywords: HyFlex courses, instructional design, instructor perception, higher education, improving instruction, course design

Magana, A. J., Karabiyik, T., Thomas, P., Jaiswal, A., Perera, V., and Dworkin, J. (2022). Teamwork facilitation and conflict resolution training in a HyFlex course during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Research Journal for Engineering Education. January 21, 2022. Available online at
Keywords: HyFlex, team-based learning, group projects, pandemic, engineering education, active learning, cooperative learning, course design

Ma’rifah, & Mawardi, M. (2022). Peningkatan Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Siswa Menggunakan Hyflex Learning Berbantuan Wordwall. [English translation: Improving Students’ Critical Thinking Skills Using Hyflex Learning Assisted by Wordwall] Scholaria, 12(3), 225–235.
Keywords: HyFlex learning, critical thinking skills

Mentzer, N., Krishna, B., Kotangale, A., & Mohandas, L. (2022). HyFlex environment: addressing students’ basic psychological needs. Learning Environments Research, 1–19.
Keywords: synchronous HyFlex, psychological needs, self-determination theory

Mills. (2022). Understanding Student Engagement and Experiences in a HyFlex Laboratory Course. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Keywords: dissertation, HyFlex laboratory experience, nutritional science

Mitchell, Zheng, J., Mork, A. L., Roth Bayer, C., & Elks, M. L. (2022). Reevaluating Learner-Mentor Connections in HyFlex Medical Student Learning Communities. Academic Medicine, 97(11S), S136–S136.
Keywords: mentoring, HyFlex learning

Miyazoe. (2022). Towards HyFlex (Hybrid-Flexible) Implementation: The Optimal Synchronous and Asynchronous Ratio Under the Pandemic. In Blended Learning: Engaging Students in the New Normal Era (2022) (pp. 229–241). Springer International Publishing.
Keywords: HyFlex teaching, student experience, blended learning, instructional design, formative research, emergency teaching

Mobo, Garcia, A. L. R., & Talosig, J. C. (2022). Challenges in Hyflex Learning in Zambales, Philippines. International Journal of Multidisciplinary: Applied Business and Education Research, 3(10), 2150–2153.
Keywords: HyFlex teaching, challenges

Mohandas, L. (2022). The Impact of Interactive Synchronous Hyflex Model on Students’ Perception of Social, Teaching and Cognitive Presence in a Design Thinking Course (Order No. 30505965). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: The Humanities and Social Sciences Collection. (2838331371).
Keywords: dissertation, pandemic, student experience, learning community

Mushtaha, E., Abu Dabous, S., Alsyouf, I., Ahmed, A., & Abdraboh, N. R. (2022). The challenges and opportunities of online learning and teaching at engineering and theoretical colleges during the pandemic. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 13(6), 101770–.
Keywords: Pandemic, student satisfaction, mental health, hybrid learning, HyFlex

Nasongkhla, & Sujiva, S. (2022). A HyFlex-Flipped Class in Action Learning: A Connectivist MOOC for Creative Problem-Solving. Contemporary Educational Technology, 14(4), ep392–.
Keywords: HyFlex teaching, flipped classroom

Ndlovu, & Merisi, P. O. (2022). Hyflex Teaching and Learning: An Alternative Modality for Meaningful Engagement and Epistemological Access in South African Higher Education. E-Journal of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, 3(6), 199–212.
Keywords: HyFlex teaching, student learning, engagement

Nelson, Berg, E. A., Wood, N., & Hill, B. (2022). Student Engagement in HyFlex Courses During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of College Student Development, 63(1), 101–105.
Keywords: student engagement, COVID-19 pandemic

Nweke, Bokolo, A. J., Mba, G., & Nwigwe, E. (2022). Investigating the effectiveness of a HyFlex cyber security training in a developing country: A case study. Education and Information Technologies, 27(7), 10107–10133.
Keywords: HyFlex training, student learning

Othman. (2022). Explorer les formations comodales en langues. ALSIC : apprentissage des langues et systèmes d’information et de communication. Flight 24, No. 2, 2021. Available online at
Keywords: Comodal, language instruction

Padilla Rodriguez. (2022). The Rise and Fall of the HyFlex Approach in Mexico. TechTrends, 66(6), 911–913.
Keywords: institutional preparation, HyFlex implementation

Panta. (2022). Challenges, Successes and Lessons Learned in Implementing Hyflex Course Module during the COVID-19 Pandemic Era. Proceedings of the West Virginia Academy of Science, 94(1).
Keywords: HyFlex teaching and learning, COVID-19

Pellitteri, M. (2023). Using online and hyflex methods to teach media practice in China in 2020 and 2021. In Friesem (ed.) The Routledge handbook of media education futures post-pandemic. (pp. 267-276). Routledge.
Keywords: HyFlex teaching, online learning, media education.

Peredrienko T. Y., Balandina E. S., Chernysheva A. M. (2022). Students’ Self-Realisation in the Hybrid Teaching Environment. Pedagogy: Theory & Practice 7(4), pp 377-383.
Keywords: Hybrid, HyFlex, Self-realization, pandemic

Porter-Szucs, & DeCicco, B. (2022). TriHy: teaching an MA TESOL class face-to-face, synchronously online, and asynchronously online. SN Social Sciences, 2(8), 143–143.
Keywords: HyFlex, learning outcomes, mixed modalities, online language teacher education, TESOL

Radwan. (2022). The post-pandemic future of higher education. Dean & Provost23(6), 1–5.
Keywords: Resilience, post-pandemic, student-centered

Raes, A. (2022). Exploring Student and Teacher Experiences in Hybrid Learning Environments: Does Presence Matter?. Postdigit Sci Educ 4, 138–159.
Keywords: Hybrid learning environments, Engagement, Learning space, Teaching space, User experience

Ranga. (2022). Investigating the Impact of Course Content Usage on Student Learning in Upper-Level Chemistry Courses. Journal of Chemical Education, 99(4), 1563–1570.
Keywords: HyFlex, chemistry course, lecture capture, COVID-19 pandemic

Reed, & Allen, J. A. (2022). Suddenly hybrid : managing the modern meeting. Wiley.
Keywords: hybrid meeting

Rodríguez-Luengo, Goset-Poblete, J., Pérez-Cárdenas, N., Niklander-Ebensperger, S., & Luengo-Mai, D. (2022). Percepción de Docentes y Alumnos sobre la Experiencia en el Uso del Modelo Hyflex en Anatomía. [English translation: Perception of Teachers and Students on the Experience in the Use of the Hyflex Model in Anatomy.] International Journal of Morphology, 40(5), 1253–1260.
Keywords: HyFlex learning, student experience

Rosen. (2022). Technology for Simultaneous Blended or Flex (HyFlex or BlendFlex) Instruction. Adult Literacy Education: The International Journal of Literacy, Language, and Numeracy, 4(2), 76–80.
Keywords: HyFlex implementation, technology

Rosen, David J. , Simpson, D., & Vanek, J. (2022). Guide for Design and Implementation of Hybrid–Flexible (HyFlex) Models in Adult Education. EdTech Books.
Keywords: Adult Education, HyFlex, Educational Technology, Online Learning, Teaching and Learning

Sanchez-Piziani, R., Detyna, M., Dance, S., and Gomez-Agustina, L. (2022). Hybrid Flexible (HyFlex) seminar delivery – A technical overview of the implementation. Building and Environment v.216. Available online 25 March 2022.
Keywords: HyFlex Technology, Audio, Teaching Environment

Schlemmer, & Moreira, J. A. M. (2022). Do ensino remoto emergencial ao HyFlex: um possível caminho para a Educação OnLIFE? [English translation: From emergency remote teaching to HyFlex: a possible path to OnLIFE Education?] Revista Da FAEEBA, 31(65), 138–155.
Keywords: HyFlex implementation

Shek, Zhu, X., Li, X., & Dou, D. (2022). Satisfaction with HyFlex Teaching and Law-abiding Leadership Education in Hong Kong University Students Under COVID-19. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 1–26.
Keywords: HyFlex teaching, Course evaluation, Leadership education, National security

Shinas, Ly, C. N., & Yilmaz Ozden, S. (2022). Cases on practical applications for remote, hybrid, and hyflex teaching. IGI Global.
Keywords: HyFlex teaching, case reports, student engagement

Simpson, D., Vanek, J., & Rosen, D. (2022). Guide for Design and Implementation of Hybrid-Flexible (HyFlex) Models in Adult Education. Available online:
Keywords: online learning, HyFlex, adult education, teaching and learning

Stepp. (2022). Videos to Scaffold and Increase Student Engagement in a Hyflex Mathematics Secondary Classroom. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Keywords: dissertation, technology, student engagement, HyFlex mathematics

Thomson, R., Fisher, J., & Steinert, Y. (2022) Twelve tips for small group teaching 2.0 – Rebooted for remote and HyFlex learning, Medical Teacher, DOI: 10.1080/0142159X.2022.2040735
Keywords: Remote learning, HyFlex learning, small group teaching, facilitation, technology-enhanced learning, online learning

Vujnovic, & Foster, J. E. (2022). Online Instruction and the “Hyflex Teaching ‘Shock Doctrine.’” In Higher Education and Disaster Capitalism in the Age of COVID-19. Springer International Publishing AG.
Keywords: HyFlex teaching, transformation of American higher education, Blendflex modalities, educational technology products in higher education

Wong. S. S. (2022). P114 HyFlex Teaching Process Evaluation During COVID Pandemic for a Baccalaureate Core Course About Issues in Nutrition & Health. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 54(7), S72–.
Keywords: HyFlex teaching

Zascerinska, Aleksejeva, A., Zascerinskis, M., Gukovica, O., Aleksejeva, L., & Abjalkiene, I. (2022). Mixed class teaching as an emerging trend accelerated by COVID-19. Education. Innovation. Diversity, 2(3), 53–65.
Keywords: educational choice, HyFlex, mixed class, teaching sub-phases

2021 – 38 entries

Bowers, Chen, Y.-L., Clifton, Y., Gamez, M., Giffin, H. H., Johnson, M. S., Lohman, L., & Pastryk, L. (2021). Reflective Design in Action: A Collaborative Autoethnography of Faculty Learning Design. TechTrends66(1), 17–28.
Keywords: HyFlex, Multi-access, Collaborative autoethnography, Course design, Design practice, Emotion, Iterative design, Faculty design, Learning design, Reflective practice

Bregnhøj, and Mathiasen, H. (2021). Hvad kan HyFlex-organiseret undervisning?: de studerendes tilgang. [What can HyFlex-organized teaching do? – the students approach] Læring Og Medier14(24).
Keywords: Hyflex-organiseret undervisning, kommunikation, undervisningsmiljøer, de studerendes stemme [Hyflex-organized teaching, communication, teaching environments, the voice of students]

Calafiore, and Giudici, E. (2021). HYBRID VERSUS HYFLEX INSTRUCTION IN AN INTRODUCTORY FINANCE COURSE. International Journal of Education Research, 16(1), 40–51.
Keywords: HyFlex, Student learning, non-traditional students

Carter, M. M. (2021). Study of a HyFlex mathematics course at Delaware technical community college (Order No. 28494877). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: The Humanities and Social Sciences Collection. (2572623202).
Keywords: HyFlex, Mathematics Instruction

Chicca J. (2021). Designing Courses Using the HyFlex Model. Nurse educator, 10.1097/NNE.0000000000000991. Advance online publication.
Keywords: COVID-19, instructional strategies, nursing

Colfer, Johri, N., and Wagner, S. L. (2021). A Case Study of MHA Faculty and Student Experiences in Adapting Learning Modality Options to Hybrid Flexible (HyFlex) During the COVID-19 Pandemic. The Journal of Health Administration Education, 38(1), 441–466. Available online:
Keywords: HyFlex, pandemic

Furse, C. and Ziegenfuss, D. (2021). Chapter 11. HyFlex Flipping: Combining in-person and on-line teaching for the flexible generation. In K. T Selvan and K. F. Warnick (Eds.)Teaching Electromagnetics: Innovative approaches and pedagogcial strategies (1st ed). CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL. pp. 201-218.
Keywords: HyFlex, Flipped

Gatlin, A. R., Kuhn, W., Boyd, D., Doukopoulos, L., and McCall, C. P. (2021). Successful at scale: 500 faculty, 39 classrooms, 6 years: A case study. Journal of Learning Spaces, 10(1), 51-62.
words: HyFlex, Scale, Learning Spaces, Classrooms

Hadder, K., Pack, A., and Williams, L. (2021). Online learning in a time of crisis: A look at student and faculty perceptions of university responses to covid-19 and how it has impacted student and faculty satisfaction (Order No. 28415459). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: The Humanities and Social Sciences Collection. (2515700454).
Keywords: HyFlex, Pandemic response, student experience, faculty experience

Hawley. (2021). Supporting hyflex acoustics laboratory exercises. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 149(4), A45–A45.
Keywords: HyFlex laboratory, physics, acoustics

Heilporn, G., and Lakhal, S. (2021). Converting a graduate-level course into a HyFlex modality: What are effective engagement strategies? The International Journal of Management Education, 19(1), 100454.
Keywords: Higher education, Online and blended learning, HyFlex, Student engagement, Instructional strategies

Heilporn, G., Lakhal, S., and Bélisle, M. (2021). An examination of teachers’ strategies to foster student engagement in blended learning in higher education. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 18(1), 25–25.
Keywords: Blended learning, course design, student engagement

Irvine, V. (2020). The Landscape of Merging Modalities. EDUCAUSE Review, 55(4).
Keywords: Blended Learning, Learning Environments, Online Learning

Johnson, D., Cahill, M., Choate, S., Roelfs, D., & Walsh, S. E. (2021). The Influence of Public Health Faculty on College and University Plans During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Public Health9, 745232–745232.
Keywords: COVID-19, instructional modality, public health, faculty expertise, university decision-making

Jongmuanwai, B., Simmatun, P., Teemueangsa, S., and Jedaman, P. (2021). Factors and Needs Assessment of Hyflex Learning with Science Activity Base For Strengthen Critical Thinking. Journal of Physics. Conference Series, 1835(1).
Keywords: Science, HyFlex, needs assessment

Jongmuanwai, B., Simmatun, P., Teemueangsa, S., and Jedaman, P. (2021). Models of Hyflex Learning a Having Activities Base Via Constructionism for Enhancing as Critical Thinking of Undergraduate Students’. Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology25(6), pp. 393 – 403. Retrieved from
Keywords: HyFlex, Science, Constructionism, Critical Thinking, Factors Model

Keiper, White, A., Carlson, C. D., and Lupinek, J. M. (2021). Student perceptions on the benefits of Flipgrid in a HyFlex learning environment. Journal of Education for Business96(6), 343–351.
Keywords: HyFlex; learning technology; student perceptions

Keshishi. (2021). Playful reflective thinking in a HyFlex classroom: using nostalgic games to engage students. Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education22.
Keywords: Hyflex classroom, nostalgia, playful learning, reflective thinking, social constructivism, Covid-19

Kohnke L. and Moorhouse, B. L. (2021) Adopting HyFlex in higher education in response to COVID-19: students’ perspectives, Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning, DOI: 10.1080/02680513.2021.1906641
Keywords: HyFlex, COVID-19, online learning, Zoom, higher education

Larsen, K., Robinson, C., Melnyk, J. A., Nicoletti, J., Gagnon, A., McLaughlin, K., and Hussaini, M. (2021). Finding our voice: Highly flexible ED for the hyflex world. To Improve the Academy: A Journal of Educational Development, 40(2). doi:
Keywords: teaching with technology, online teaching and learning, pivot pedagogy, HyFlex

Lavigne, Groman, A., and Price, M. (2021). Teaching Implicit Bias and Its Management in the Pain Care of Sickle Cell Anemia Patients in a Hyflex Pre-Professional Classroom During COVID-19. Pain Medicine (Malden, Mass.).
Keywords: HyFlex, student learning

Lohmann, M. J., Randolph, K. M., and Oh, J. H. (2021). Classroom Management Strategies for Hyflex Instruction: Setting Students Up for Success in the Hybrid Environment. Early Childhood Education Journal, DOI: 10.1007/s10643-021-01201-5
Keywords: Classroom management, Hyflex, Online learning, K12

MacIntyre, C. R., Costantino, V., Bian L., and Bethel, C. (2021) Effectiveness of facemasks for opening a university campus in Mississippi, United States – a modelling study, Journal of American College Health, DOI: 10.1080/07448481.2020.1866579
Keywords: campus, college, COVID-19, facemask, students

Miller, A. N., Sellnow, D. D., and Strawser, M. G. (2021). Pandemic pedagogy challenges and opportunities: instruction communication in remote, HyFlex, and BlendFlex courses. Communication Education, 70(2), 202–204.

Motoyama, Kadota, Y., Shigetoshi, K., Sugimoto, Y., and Ashihara, T. (2021). [Japanese language] University-wide Introduction of HyFlex Classes at Shiga University of Medical Science. Journal for Academic Computing and Networking, 25(1), 39–45.
Keywords: HyFlex, COVID-19 pandemic

Pastore, Kyosev, Y., Fassihi, A.-A., and Flax, B. (2021). Textile education during the 2020 pandemic: experiences in US, South Africa and Germany. Communications in Development and Assembling of Textile Products, 2(1), 18–33. p18-33
Keywords: covid, online education, textile education

Plews, Sweet, M., Sudbury, L., Malan, W., Waterbury, C., Savage, J., Provensal, E., Rose-Sinclair, K., and Chavez, M. (2021). From emergency remote teaching to hybrid NUflex: a collaborative approach to developing faculty into learning designers. Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education, 22.
Keywords: HyFlex, faculty development, resilient teaching, Covid-19

Raman, R., Sullivan, N., Zolbanin, H., Nittala, L., Hvalshagen, M., and Allen, R. (2021). Practical Tips for HyFlex Undergraduate Teaching During a Pandemic. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 48, pp. 218-225.  
Keywords: HyFlex Teaching, Undergraduate Teaching, COVID-19, Practical Teaching Tips, Group Work, Actionable Tips

Rider, J. and Moore, A. (2021). Scaling HyFlex for the Post-Pandemic Campus. EDUCAUSE Review – Teaching and Learning (August 13, 2021). Available online:
Keywords: strategic planning, post-pandemic, scaling, implementation

Romero-Hall, & Ripine, C. (2021). Hybrid Flexible Instruction: Exploring Faculty Preparedness. Online Learning (Newburyport, Mass.), 25(3), 289–312.
Keywords: Faculty; Faculty Preparedness; Online Teaching; HyFlex Instruction

Rosen, D. J. (2021). BlendFlex and HyFlex models to increase student engagement and retention. Adult Literacy Education, 3(2), 73-78.
Keywords: HyFlex, engagement, retention, BlendFlex

Rosillo, N., and Montes, N. (2021). Escape room dual mode approach to teach maths during the COVID-19 era. Mathematics, 9(20), 2602.
Keywords: HyFlex, Pandemic response, student experience

Selvan, & Warnick, K. F. (2021). Chapter 11. HyFlex Flipping: Combining In-Person and On-Line Teaching for the Flexible Generation. In Teaching Electromagnetics. (pp. 201-218) Taylor & Francis Group.
Keywords: HyFlex teaching, science course, flipped classroom, backwards design

Shashidhar, A. (2021). HyFlex: The Future of Workspaces. Business World (India).
Keywords: HyFlex, workplace

Verrecchia, and McGlinchey, M. J. (2021). Teaching During Covid: The Effectiveness of the HyFlex Classroom in a 300 Level Statistics Class. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 9(3), 23–27.
Keywords: HyFlex classroom; face-to-face classroom; independent samples t-tests

Wigal, C. M. (2021). Teaching the design process in a HyFlex environment. Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, 21(10), 226-235.
Keywords: HyFlex, instructional design, design education, team-based projects

Zehler, Cole, B., and Arter, S. (2021). Hyflex Simulation: A Case Study of a Creative Approach to Unprecedented Circumstances. Clinical Simulation in Nursing60, 64–68.
Keywords: HyFlex, nursing education, remote learning, distance learning, simulation, observer, participation, undergraduate nursing

Zemeckis, D. R. (2021). Offering a Hyflex Fisheries Science Course for Stakeholders of New Jersey’s Fisheries. Journal of Extension, 58(1), Article 10.
Keywords: fisheries management, fisheries science, Hyflex, webinar

2020 – 10 entries

BohatyretsV. (2020). Benefits of HyFlex learning in creating a positive students’ experience. Mediaforum8, 165-172. Retrieved from
Keywords: HyFlex teaching/learning, students, Covid-19, flexibility, adaptability, positive experience, hybrid online course

Colasante, M., Bevacqua, J. & Muir, S. (2020). Flexible hybrid format in university curricula to offer students in-subject choice of study mode: An educational design research project. Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice, 17(3).
Keywords: higher education, flexible hybrid curriculum, personalisation

Ensmann, S.Y., Gomez-Vasquez, L., Sturgill, R., and Whiteside, A. L. (2020). A Pandemic Case Journal of One Higher Education Institution. Quarterly Review of Distance Education21(3), 19–22.
Keywords: Pandemics, COVID-19, Educational Technology, Technology Uses in Education, Online Courses, Blended Learning, Higher Education, College Students, College Faculty, Teacher Role

Keiper, M. C., White, A., Carlson, C. D. and Lupinek, J. M. (2020) Student perceptions on the benefits of Flipgrid in a HyFlex learning environment, Journal of Education for Business, DOI: 10.1080/08832323.2020.1832431
Keywords: Hybrid flexible methodology, HyFlex, learning technology,  online learning, student perceptions

Kim, J., & Maloney, E.J. (2020). Scenario 13. HyFlex, in The Low-Density University15 Scenarios for Higher Education. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press., doi:10.1353/book.77218. Available online (open access) at
Keywords: HyFlex, Future-thinking

Lakhal, S., Mukamurera, J., Bédard, ME. et al. Features fostering academic and social integration in blended synchronous courses in graduate programs. Int J Educ Technol High Educ 17, 5 (2020).
Keywords: Blended synchronous courses, Blended synchronous learning, Academic integration, Social integration, Higher education

* Magna Publications. (2020). Strategies that work in Traditional and HyFlex classrooms (many strategies to choose from, many authors). The Journal of Faculty Development; Madison, 34(3), pp. 58-98.

Naffi, N. (2020). The Hyber-Flexible Course Design Model (HyFlex): A Pedagogical Strategy for Uncertain Times. International Journal of Technologies in Higher Education, 17 (2), p. 136-143.
Keywords: COVID-19, Hybrid-Flexible course design model (HyFlex), higher education, instructional design, digital transformation, online teaching, formation comodale, pedagogical transformation, innovative pedagogical approach, equity

Raes, A., Detienne, L., Windey, I., & Depaepe, F. (2020). A systematic literature review on synchronous hybrid learning: Gaps identified. Learning Environments Research, 23(3), 269-290.
Keywords: Hyflex, Here or There Instruction, research gaps, blended synchronous

Rhoads, D. D. (2020). Traditional, Online or Both? A Comparative Study of University Student Learning and Satisfaction Between Traditional and Hyflex Delivery Modalities. Dissertation Concordia University Irvine, 2020, 148; 27995688.

The 92 bibliography entries below (most 2019 and earlier) are reused from Appendix A. of the HyFlex book (published under a CC-BY license).
Reference: Beatty, B. J. (2019). Bibliography of Hybrid-Flexible Literature (using various terms). In B. J. Beatty (Ed.), Hybrid-Flexible Course Design. EdTech Books.

Abdelmalak, M. (March, 2013). HyFlex course design: A case study of an educational technology course. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education (SITE) International Conference, New Orleans, LA USA.

Abdelmalak, M. (2014). Towards Flexible Learning for Adult Students: HyFlex Design. In M. Searson & M. Ochoa (Eds.), Proceedings of SITE 2014–Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 706-712). Jacksonville, Florida, United States: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved April 4, 2019 from

Abdelmalak, M., Parra, J. (2016, October) Expanding Learning Opportunities for Graduate Students with
HyFlex Course Design.
 International Journal of Online Pedagogy and Course Design 6(4).

Abdelmalak, M. M., & Parra, J. L. (2018). Case Study of HyFlex Course Design: Benefits and Challenges for Graduate Students. In R. Sharma (Ed.), Innovative Applications of Online Pedagogy and Course Design (pp. 298-317). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Alexander, M.M., Lynch, J.E., Rabinovich, T., & Knutel, P.G. (2014). Snapshot of a hybrid learning environment. The Quarterly Review of Distance Learning, 15(1), 9-21.
Keywords: educational environment, blended learning, h igher education, online courses, web based instruction, deliery systems, student satisfaction, academic persistence, asynchronous communication, synchronous communication, educational technology, chalkboards, student surveys, feedback (response)

Allan, Campbell, C., & Crough, J. (2019). Blended Learning Designs in STEM Higher Education Putting Learning First (Allan, C. Campbell, & J. Crough, Eds.; 1st ed. 2019.). Springer Singapore.
Keywords: HyFlex, blended learning, STEM

Beatty, B. (2006, October) Designing the HyFlex World- Hybrid, Flexible Classes for All Students. Paper presented at the Association for Educational Communication and Technology International Conference, Dallas, TX.

Beatty, B. (2007). Transitioning to an Online World: Using HyFlex Courses to Bridge the Gap. In C. Montgomerie & J. Seale (Eds.), Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2007–World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications (pp. 2701-2706). Vancouver, Canada: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved April 5, 2019 from

Beatty, B. (2007, October). Hybrid Classes with Flexible Participation Options – If you build it, how will they come? Proceedings of the Association for Educational Communication and Technology International Conference, Anaheim, CA.

Beatty, B. (2007, November). Blended Learning for Students with Choice: The HyFlex Course and Design Process. Peer-reviewed paper presented at the Thirteenth Sloan-C International Conference on Online Learning, Orlando, FL.

Beatty, B. (2008). HyFlex Delivery for US Army Counter Insurgency (COIN) Training Applications. In Lickteig, C. W., Bailenson, J., Beatty, B., Dunleavy, M., Graham, C. R., Kozlowski S.W., & Mayer, R. E.  Innovative Training Methods for the Contemporary Operating Environment: Contributions from the Consortium Research Fellows Program (ARI Special Report).  Arlington, VA:  U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.

Beatty, B. (2008). Sloan Consortium Effective Practice Award: Using the “HyFlex” Course and Design Process. Retrieved 04/04/2016 from

Beatty, B. (2009, October). Student Self-reflections on Learning in a Hybrid Course Environment: Do Participation Mode Differences Lead to Differences in Reflections? Peer-reviewed paper presented at the Association for Educational Communication and Technology International Conference, Louisville KY.

Beatty, B. (2011, November). HyFlex Course Design: A Summary Report on Five Years of Implementation. Peer-reviewed paper presented at the Association for Educational Communication and Technology International Conference, Jacksonville, FL.

Beatty, B. (2012, April). HyFlex Course Design: The Advantages of Letting Students Choose the Blend. Peer-reviewed paper presented at Sloan-C Blended Learning Conference, Milwaukee, WI.

Beatty, B. J. (2014). Hybrid courses with flexible participation – The HyFlex Course Design. In L. Kyei-Blankson and E. Ntuli (Eds.) Practical Applications and Experiences in K-20 Blended Learning Environments. (pp. 153-177). Hershey, PA:  IGI Global.

Beatty, B. J. (2019). Hybrid-Flexible Course Design: Implementing Student-Directed Hybrid Classes. EdTech Books. Available online:

Beatty, B., Littlefield, C., Miller, J., Rhoads, D., Shaffer, D., Shurance, M. and Beers, M. (2016, April) Hybrid Flexible Course and Program Design: Models for Student-Directed Hybrids. Paper and panel session presented at the OLC Innovate 2016 Conference, New Orleans, LA.

Bell, J., Sawaya, S., & Cain, W. (2014). Synchromodal classes: Designing for shared learning experiences between face-to-face and online students. International Journal of Designs for learning, 5(1), 68-82.

[French language] Bergeron, M.-H. (2014). Innovating to promote access to higher education in rural areas. Pédagogie Collégiale Vol. 27, No 4, Summer 2014. Retrieved from

Bevacqua, J. & Colasante, M. (2019). No Lines: Observations from a pilot project to re-imagine, design and implement a flexible student-centred approach to study mode selection. Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice, 16(1).
Keywords: higher education, student-centred, flexible study mode, online learning, digital learning, innovation,
curriculum design

Bevacqua, J. & Colasante, M. (2018). New shores: Preliminary observations from a proof-of-concept project, to define and design a student-centred approach to study mode selection. In M Campbell et al (Eds.) Proceedings ASCILITE2018: 35th International Conference on Innovation, Practice and Research in the Use of Educational Technologies in Tertiary Education, Geelong, VIC, 309-313.
Keywords: Student-centred; Digital learning; Innovation; Flexible study mode; Higher education

Binnewies, S., Wang, Z. (2019) Challenges of Student Equity and Engagement in a HyFlex Course. In C. Allan, C. Campbell, and J. Crough (Eds.) Blended Learning Designs in STEM Higher Education: Putting Learning First (pp. 209-230). Singapore: Springer Nature

Boelens, R., De Wever, B., & Voet, M. (2017). Four key challenges to the design of blended learning: A systematic literature review. Educational Research Review, 22, pp. 1-18. doi:

Bower, M., Dalgarno, B., Kennedy, G. E., Lee, M. J. W., & Kenney, J. (2015). Design and implementation factors in blended synchronous environments: Outcomes from a cross-case analysis. Computers & Education, 86, 1-17.

Bower, M.,Kennedy, G. E., Dalgarno, B., Lee, M. J. W., and Kenney, J. (2014). Blended synchronous learning: A handbook for educators.  Retrieved from

Bower M., Kenney, J., Dalgarno, B., Lee, M. J. W., & Kennedy, G. E. (2014). Patterns and principles for blended synchronous learning: Engaging remote and face-to-face learners in rich-media real-time collaborative activities. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 30(3), 261-272.

Butz, N. T., Stupnisky, R. H., Peterson, E. S., & Majerus, M. M. (2014). Self-determined motivation in synchronous hybrid graduate business programs: Contrasting online and on-campus students. Online Learning and Teaching, 10, 211-227.

Butz, N. T., Stupnisky, R. H. (2017). Improving student relatedness through an online discussion intervention: The application of self-determination theory in synchronous hybrid programs. Computers & Education, 114 (2017), pp. 117-138, 10.1016/j.compedu.2017.06.006

Day, S. & Verhaart, M. (2016). Determining the requirements for geographically extended learning (gxLearning): A multiple case study approach. In S. Barker, S. Dawson, A. Pardo, & C. Colvin (Eds.), Show Me The Learning. Proceedings ASCILITE 2016 Adelaide (pp. 182-191). 

Day, S., & Verhaart, M. (2016). Beyond Wi-Fi: Using Mobile devices for gxLearning in the field. In M. Verhaart, A. Sarkar, E. Erturk & R. Tomlinson (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th Annual Conference of Computing and Information Technology Education and Research in New Zealand incorporating the 29th Annual Conference of the NACCQ, Wellington, New Zealand, 11th-13th July 2016 (pp. 27-33). Retrieved from 

Detienne, L., Raes, A. & Depaepe, F. (2018). Benefits, Challenges and Design Guidelines for Synchronous Hybrid Learning: A Systematic Literature Review. In T. Bastiaens, J. Van Braak, M. Brown, L. Cantoni, M. Castro, R. Christensen, G. Davidson-Shivers, K. DePryck, M. Ebner, M. Fominykh, C. Fulford, S. Hatzipanagos, G. Knezek, K. Kreijns, G. Marks, E. Sointu, E. Korsgaard Sorensen, J. Viteli, J. Voogt, P. Weber, E. Weippl & O. Zawacki-Richter (Eds.), Proceedings of EdMedia: World Conference on Educational Media and Technology (pp. 2004-2009). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved September 20, 2019 from

Donovan, S. A. G. (2018). Mixed methods study of the fit instructional model on attributes of student success (Order No. 10935064). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: The Humanities and Social Sciences Collection. (2115548318). Retrieved from

Educause. (2010). Seven things you should know about the HyFlex course model. Retrieved 04/04/2016 from

Elder, S. J. (2018). Multi-Options: An Innovative Course Delivery Methodology. Nursing Education Perspectives 39(2), pp. 110-112.

Gobeil-Proulx, J. (2019). La perspective étudiante sur la formation comodale, ou hybride flexible. [What do university students think about hybrid-flexible, or HyFlex courses?] Revue internationale des technologies en pédagogie universitaire16(1), pp. 56-67. Available online:

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